In a nutshell Clojure is a Lisp-dialect that runs on the JVM. Being Lispish it offers a flexible and concise notation. Being a JVM language it allows complete and straightforward interoperability with Java. In other words: In order to write serious Clojure programs you only need to learn language constructs. You don't need to get acquainted with new libraries.
Clojure comes with a REPL which lets you quickly evaluate Clojure expressions. In order to utilize the benefits of a REPL your programming work-flow should be different. Instead of the write-compile-run (or TDD's test-write-compile) rhythm, you need to switch to a more constructive mode: you write an isolated small expression, you run it, and then you add it into the program. Here's how Steve Yegge describes it:
You're writing a function, you're building it on the fly. And when it works [for that mock data], you're like, "Oh yeah, it works!" You don't run it through a compiler. You copy it and paste it into your unit test suite. That's one unit test, right? And you copy it into your code, ok, this is your function.
So you're actually proving to yourself that the thing works by construction. Proooof by construction.
After adopting this work-flow I noticed that I constantly copy code from my text editor into the REPL. It didn't take long for this sequence to start annoying me. I wanted a tighter integration. I wanted an Editor which is also a REPL. I envisioned an editor where I can right click on a piece of text, choose "Eval" and immediately see the results in an "Output" window.
This vision was (and still is) the seed of Waterfront.
I used Clojure itself as the implementation language (what better way is there to learn a language than to use it something serious?). In fact, once I had the baic functionality working, I used Waterfront for developing Waterfront. These two choices helped me in detecting all sorts of features that are needed for the Clojure developers. Here are a few examples:
First, I needed parenthesis matching. It's a must if you have a Lisp-like syntax. I wanted to be able to see the doc of Clojure functions. When manipulating Java objects I needed to see the list of methods/fields/constructors of classes. I also noticed that when I write proxies (using Clojure's proxy function), I constantly switch back and fourth between Waterfront and the Javadoc of the proxied class, copying the names of the methods I want to override.
I tried to address these needs as best as I can. Currently, Waterfront supports the following features:
- CTRL+E: Eval current selection, or the whole file if the selection is empty
- Edit -> Eval as you type: When turned on (default) periodically evaluates your code. Boosts productivity as many errors are detected on the spot.
- Syntax and Evaluation errors are displayed on: (1) The Problems window; (2) The line-number panel, as red markers.
- Source -> Generate -> Proxy: Generates a proxy for the given list of super-types, with stub implementations for all abstract methods.
- F1: Doc or Reflection
Shows the doc (as per Clojure's (doc x) function) of the identifier under the caret.
Shows the synopsis of a Java class if there is a class symbol under the caret (e.g.: java.awt.Color).
- CTRL+Space: Token-based auto completion.
- Full parenthesis matching.
- An extensible plugin architecture.
- Eval-ed code can inspect/mutate Waterfront by accessing the *app* variable. For instance, if you eval this expression,
((*app* :change) :font-name "Arial"), you will choose "Arial" as the UI font.
- Eval-ed code can inspect the currently edited Clojure program. For instance, if you eval this expression,
((*app* :visit) #(when (= (str (first %1)) "cons") (println %1))), the output window will show all calls, made by your code, to the cons function.
- Other goodies such as undo/redo, toggle comment, recently opened files, indent/unindent, Tab is *always* two spaces, ...
In terms of implementation, Waterfront is based on the context pattern. It allows event handlers to communicate in a functional (side-effect free) manner. On top of this there is a plugin-loader mechanism which loads the plugins that are specified in Waterfront's configuration file. This means that functionality can be easily added or removed (extremely useful when debugging!).
The overall response was warm. I plan to move Waterfront into clojure-contrib in order to provide Clojure newbies with a lightweight IDE to ease the transition into the language.
I am almost done telling the story of Waterfront. The only thing missing is the answer to this question: why Waterfront?
Here's the answer: Back in the 90's there was this TV show called: Homicide: Life on the Streets, describing a homicide unit in Baltimore's police department. One of the story lines - that runs throughout all seasons - is about a Baltimore bar called "The Waterfront" which is owned and operated by three Baltimore cops: Det. Meldrick Lewis, Det. John Munch, and Det. Tim Bayliss. Needless to say, I like this show very much.