Bad idiom: Returning a parameter

Some Background

It is common to design a method whose return type is the same as the enclosing class. Logger.log is such a method:

class Logger {
int n = 0;
Logger log(String s) {
System.out.println("[" + (n++) + "] " + s);
return this;
void flush() { System.out.flush(); }

Basically, there are two reasons for doing that. First, this design makes it possible to send several messages to an object in a single compact expression, as in:

The second reason is related to immutable classes. In such classes a "state changing" method is actually a method that returns a new object. This style of programming (which I personally quite fond of) is ripped off the world of funtional-programming. Here is how it comes about in an immutable Java List:

class List<T> {
public final T t;
public final List<T> ts;
public List(T x, List<T> xs) { t = x; ts = xs; }
public List<T> prepend(T x) {
return new List<T>(x, this);

The actual sin (i.e.: Returning a paramete)

So we now know what are chain methods. The bad idiom I want to talk about is that of returning a parameter:

class SomeClass {
public StringBuilder dump(StringBuilder sb) {
return sb;

Why would a programmer design such a method?
Well, (again) it makes it possible to write a compact expression with several method calls:

void someClient(SomeClass o1) { 
// Assumes that dump(x) returns x
StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder("o1=");

So what's the problem?
It is completely unclear whether such a method (a-la SomeClass.dump()) should return its parameter or a new copy of it.

someClient() assumes that dump() returns the object that is passed in as the sb parameter, so it ignores since it already has this object pointed by the builder variable. Consequently someClient() would break if SomeClass.dump() were to return a new object.

In the other case, if the client expects the method to return a new object, the caller may mutate the object (passed as parameter) without knowing it is effectively mutating the result:

void someClient(SomeClass o1) { 
// Assumes that a new object is returned from dump(x)
StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder("o1=");
StringBuilder result = o1.dump(builder);
builder.clear(); builder.append("....");
System.out.println(builder.toString() + " " + result.toString());

Just imagine a class with such a method, which is also overridden in a sublcass. The superclass' method takes the first approach where the overriding method takes the second approach. A nightmare, isn't it?


Why is a method retuning a parameter more risky than a chain method (as described in the background)?
A misunderstanding between a client and a provider can occur also with chain methods. But, there is one difference that make chain methods somewhat safer: the protocol of a class usually indicates whether it is an immutable class (in which case the return values should not be ignored) or not.

In the case of a method returning a parameter the indication is buried inside the body of the method (which is usually not available to the client), so we are much more likely to make the wrong guess.

One may argue that this problem can be easily solved using proper documentation. As a principle, design should not rely on comments, for two reasons: (1) comments are written in plain English so they tend to unclear and imprecise. (2) When the code changes there is nothing that forces the developer to keeps the comment in sync with the changes.

Finally, It seems that (imperative) programming languages need to support a "non-ignorable-return-type" annotation. The compiler would issue an error if the return value of method carrying such an annotation is not assigned to a variable. This would turn the problem described in this post into a non-problem.

1 comments :: Bad idiom: Returning a parameter

  1. I agree that supporting a "non-ignorable-return-type" is a good solution. Just like in Pascal you have difference between function and procedure. In this regard, my general opinion is that a language should not be too permitting to the developer. The amount of "damage" that programmer could do can be significantly reduced by limiting the language (unlike is done in C++, for example).

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